Search results for theme: "Immigration and asylum",

News & Events: Court rules Macedonian police must pay for racial profiling at the border
24 November 2015

News & Events: New Report About the Situation of Syrian Dom Refugees
29 September 2015

News & Events: Nowhere to Turn: The Situation of Dom Refugees from Syria in Turkey
23 September 2015

Research & Advocacy: ERRC submission to UN CERD on France (April 2015)
9 April 2015

Research & Advocacy: Roma Rights 1 2014: Going Nowhere? Western Balkan Roma and EU Visa Liberalisation
1 October 2014

Research & Advocacy: Abandoned Minority: Roma Rights History in Kosovo
18 October 2012

News & Events: New Deal between France and Romania on Roma Returns Must Not Breach Rights to Free Movement
14 September 2012

News & Events: Roma evictions: François Hollande, This Policy is Harmful and Ineffective
13 August 2012

News & Events: Roma Evicted in France as New Government Fails to Find New Solutions
10 August 2012

Research & Advocacy: ERRC submission to the European Commission on Serbia (May 2012)
29 May 2012

News & Events: Roma Face Barriers to Freedom of Movement in Macedonia
20 April 2012

News & Events: Rights Groups Urge Slovak Authorities to Resolve Roma Housing Situation
15 December 2010

Research & Advocacy: ERRC submission to UN UPR on Denmark (November 2010)
19 November 2010

Resource Centre: Basic Facts on Roma - Albania
28 August 2010

News & Events: Al Jazeera: Expelling the Roma
4 August 2010

News & Events: France discriminates against Roma and Travellers in violation of the European Social Charter
2 March 2010

News & Events: NGOs call for EU response to substandard Roma and Traveller housing across the Union
20 October 2009

News & Events: Rights Coalition Calls on Canada to Take a Leading Role in Protecting Czech Roma from Persecution
5 May 2009

News & Events: International Human Rights Groups Urge Human Rights Respect of Roma and Government-Roma Partnership
8 April 2009

Research & Advocacy: Securitate A La Italiana: Amprentare, violenţă extremă şi hărţuire ale romilor din Italia
11 September 2008

News & Events: ITALY CRISIS
9 June 2008

News & Events: ERRC Highlights Roma Rights Concerns in Russia
5 June 2008

Research & Advocacy: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Evaluates Situation of Roma, Ashkaeli and Egyptian IDPs from Kosovo in Serbia
20 November 2007

Research & Advocacy: National and Regional Officials Sign Discriminatory Pacts in Rome and Milan, Italy
20 November 2007

Research & Advocacy: Romanian Roma Camping on an Irish Motorway Deported After Several Months' Standoff
20 November 2007

News & Events: CoE Committee of Ministers demands positive action on the housing of Bulgarian Roma
8 October 2007

Research & Advocacy: News roundup: Snapshots from around Europe
19 June 2007

Research & Advocacy: Romani Return to the Mitrovica Mahalla Marred with Problems
19 June 2007

Research & Advocacy: European Social Charter Housing Rights Victory for Roma
18 June 2007

Research & Advocacy: French Mayor Sentenced After Setting Fire to Romani Camp
18 May 2007

News & Events: European Committee of Social Rights Issues Landmark Ruling Against Bulgaria for Violating Rights of Roma to Adequate Housing
30 March 2007

News & Events: Romanian Draft Law on Housing Expected to Worsen Situation of Roma and other Marginalised Groups
22 March 2007

Research & Advocacy: Turkish Authorities Destroy Romani Neighbourhoods for Urban Development
13 November 2006

Research & Advocacy: Germany Forcibly Expels Suicidal Romani Woman to Serbia and Montenegro
13 November 2006

Research & Advocacy: Gendarmes Conduct Illegal Raid in Romani Community in France
13 November 2006

Research & Advocacy: Strasbourg Cases and Their Long Term Impact
13 November 2006

News & Events: Slovene Authorities Capitulate to Mob
6 November 2006

Research & Advocacy: The Decade of Roma Rights
31 October 2006

News & Events: UN Human Rights Committee Reviews Ukraine
23 October 2006

News & Events: Wave of Racially-Targeted Housing Destruction in Turkey
25 September 2006

News & Events: Eviction threats of Roma in Bulgaria continues unabated
19 July 2006

News & Events: Bulgarian Authorities Urged to Halt Forced Evictions of Roma
29 June 2006

News & Events: Victims of Kosovo Poisoning Bring Lawsuit at European Court of Human Rights
20 February 2006

Research & Advocacy: Dale Farm Evictions
1 February 2006

Research & Advocacy: Representative of the UN Secretary General for the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons Expresses Concern over Romani IDPs and Victims of Lead Poisoning
1 February 2006

Research & Advocacy: Austrian Campsite has
1 February 2006

Research & Advocacy: "When We Learned What Was Expecting Us"
1 February 2006

Research & Advocacy: Political Campaign in Britain Targets Gypsies and Travellers
22 July 2005

Research & Advocacy: Travellers Forcibly Evicted from Campsites, One Significant Win in Securing Caravan Site
22 July 2005

Research & Advocacy: Swedish Authorities Expel Romani family to Serbia
22 July 2005

Research & Advocacy: Council of Europe Anti-Racism Body Issues Report on Macedonia
22 July 2005

Research & Advocacy: Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination Reviews Ireland
21 July 2005

Research & Advocacy: European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance Issues Report on France
21 July 2005

Research & Advocacy: Forced Eviction Crisis in the Czech Republic
21 July 2005

Research & Advocacy: Collective Complaint Brought Against Bulgaria on Systemic Violations of the Right to Adequate Housing
21 July 2005

Research & Advocacy: Council of Europe Anti-Racism Commission Issues Third Report on Austria
21 July 2005

Research & Advocacy: ERRC submission to the European Commission Concerning Implementation of the Race Equality Directive in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia (July 2005)
19 July 2005

News & Events: Forced Eviction Crisis in the Czech Republic
30 June 2005

News & Events: UN Concerned at Situation of Roma in Serbia and Montenegro
30 May 2005

News & Events: International Helsinki Federation/European Roma Rights Centre Special Representative in Macedonia
27 May 2005

Research & Advocacy: Gypsy/Travellers Face Continuing Threats of Eviction in UK
11 March 2005

Research & Advocacy: Victory in ERRC
11 March 2005

Research & Advocacy: Albanian Police Forcibly Evict Egyptian Family
11 March 2005

News & Events: Swedish Authorities Set to Expel Kosovo Romani Family to Serbia and Montenegro
23 February 2005

News & Events: Italian Authorities Threaten Roma from Kosovo and Other Parts of Serbia and Montenegro with Expulsion
22 February 2005

Research & Advocacy: Legal Action in Romani Cases in Serbia and Montenegro
16 December 2004

Research & Advocacy: Romanian Mayor Announces Intention to Evict Romani Families
16 December 2004

Research & Advocacy: UNHCR Finds
16 December 2004

Research & Advocacy: Italian Authorities Evict Another Romani Community
16 December 2004

News & Events: European Roma Rights Centre and six Czech Romani Plaintiffs Win Landmark Racial Discrimination Case against UK Government
10 December 2004

Research & Advocacy: Statement of the Roma, Askalija and NGOs defending their human rights, participants to the OSCE SHDM
15 November 2004

News & Events: ERRC Complaint to Hungarian Minority Ombudsman in Housing Discrimination Case
5 August 2004

Research & Advocacy: Agreement Reached After Court Confirmed Romani Refugees Must Vacate Camp in Serbia and Montenegro
29 July 2004

Research & Advocacy: Kosovo Ombudsperson Urges against the Return of Roma, Ashkaelia and Egyptians to the Province
29 July 2004

Research & Advocacy: Italian Authorities Continue To Forcibly Evict Roma Rendering Some Homeless
29 July 2004

Research & Advocacy: Collective Expulsion of Slovak Romani Asylum Seekers from Finland
29 July 2004

Research & Advocacy: Romani Woman Forcibly Expelled from Denmark
29 July 2004

Other: Konvencia Pala O Statuso Našalde Manušengo
7 July 2004

Other: Romania adopts measures to stop emigration
7 July 2004

Research & Advocacy: Anti-Romani Action in Slovakia
7 July 2004

News & Events: UN Critical of Greece's Roma Rights Record - United Nations Social and Economic Rights Body Concerned at
22 June 2004

Research & Advocacy: Government Restricts Benefits for Immigrants Prior to the Accession of 10 New States to the EU after Racist Campaign against Roma in UK Media
28 May 2004

Research & Advocacy: Gypsy Families Granted Planning Permission After Long Battle with Local Council While Others Still Fighting in the UK
28 May 2004

Research & Advocacy: European Commission against Racism and Intolerance Issues Third Report of Switzerland
28 May 2004

Research & Advocacy: Racist Attempts by Greek Authorities to Keep Roma Out of Their Territories
28 May 2004

Research & Advocacy: Roma Charged Under Sanitary Decree Found Not Guilty
28 May 2004

News & Events: Denmark Leads Europe in Brutal Treatment of Migrants and Refugees
25 March 2004

Research & Advocacy: ERRC submission to the European Commission on the Joint Inclusion Memorandum of Lithuania (February 2004)
17 February 2004

Research & Advocacy: Unsuccessful Relocation of Romani Community
7 February 2004

Research & Advocacy: Macedonian Police Forcibly Expel Egyptian Couple to Kosovo
7 February 2004

Research & Advocacy: Slovene Authorities Threaten Mentally Disabled Romani Man with Eviction
7 February 2004

Research & Advocacy: Romani Families Evicted in Slaný, Czech Republic
7 February 2004

Research & Advocacy: ERRC submission to the European Commission on the Joint Inclusion Memorandum of Slovenia (January 2004)
28 January 2004

Research & Advocacy: ERRC submission to the European Commission on the Joint Inclusion Memorandum of Poland (January 2004)
19 January 2004

News & Events: OSCE Ministerial Council Adopts Action Plan on Improving the Situation of Roma and Sinti in the OSCE Area
2 December 2003

Research & Advocacy: ERRC submission to the European Committee of Social Rights on Greece, Hungary and Turkey (December 2003)
1 December 2003

News & Events: Legal Action Challenging Forced Expulsions to Kosovo
23 November 2003

Research & Advocacy: Germany Expels Roma En Masse to Serbia and Montenegro
29 October 2003

Research & Advocacy: Slovak Romani Family Receives Asylum in Belgium
29 October 2003

Research & Advocacy: UK Members of Parliament Question the Idea of Safe Country of Origin List
29 October 2003

Research & Advocacy: Kosovo Romani Refugees Denied the Right to Leave Macedonia
29 October 2003

Research & Advocacy: Further Attempts by Denmark to Force Roma to "Voluntarily" Return to Kosovo
29 October 2003

News & Events: Macedonian Police Forcibly Expel Roma to Kosovo
19 September 2003

News & Events: ERRC Letter to European Commissioner Romano Prodi Concerning Human Rights Emergency in Macedonia
22 May 2003

Research & Advocacy: Roma in Serbia and Montenegro Live in Substandard Conditions
10 May 2003

Research & Advocacy: More Roma Expelled from France
10 May 2003

Research & Advocacy: Repeated Collective Expulsions of Roma from UK
10 May 2003

Research & Advocacy: Romani Boy Living in Substandard Conditions Dies in Fire in Lithuania
10 May 2003

News & Events: ERRC Sues Denmark Regarding Forced Expulsions of Kosovo Roma
9 May 2003

News & Events: Slovak Romani Family Receives Asylum in Belgium
18 March 2003

News & Events: Danish authorities pressure Kosovo rome to return
13 March 2003

News & Events: Mainstreaming, Empowering and Networking Roma Communities as Full Participants in Post Crisis Management, Good Governance and Development of a Sustainable Civil Society in South Eastern Europe
11 February 2003

News & Events: "Serious Protection Problems" for Roma, Ashkaelia and Egyptians in Kosovo
1 January 2003

News & Events: July 18, 2001
1 January 2003

News & Events: September 19, 2003
1 January 2003

Research & Advocacy: Roma to be Expelled from Denmark
7 November 2002

Research & Advocacy: Harsh Immigration Law Passed in Italy
7 November 2002

Research & Advocacy: Czech Roma Turned Back at German Border
7 November 2002

Research & Advocacy: News Roundup: Snapshots from Around Europe
7 November 2002

Research & Advocacy: Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe visits Hungary
7 November 2002

Research & Advocacy: Collective Expulsions of Roma Around Europe... And Again the European Court of Human Rights Rules the Practice Illegal
7 November 2002

Research & Advocacy: Stateless Roma Detained at Airport in the Romanian Capital
7 November 2002

News & Events: Continued Expulsions and Dismantling of Romani Camps in Italy
10 July 2002

Research & Advocacy: Grants Awarded
10 July 2002

Research & Advocacy: Collective Expulsion of Roma from Portugal
10 July 2002

Research & Advocacy: Proposed Police State in Romani Camps in Italy
10 July 2002

Research & Advocacy: Forced Exit: ERRC Legal Action in Italian Expulsion Case
10 July 2002

Research & Advocacy: News roundup: Snapshots from around Europe
10 July 2002

Research & Advocacy: Travellers Law not Enforced in France
10 July 2002

Research & Advocacy: More Evictions of Roma in Hungary
10 July 2002

Research & Advocacy: UNHCR Warns Against Forced Expulsion of Kosovo Roma Refugees from Germany
10 July 2002

Research & Advocacy: Poverty among Roma in Northwestern Russia
7 May 2002

Research & Advocacy: Romani Houses Destroyed to Make Way for a Road in Macedonia
7 May 2002

Research & Advocacy: Roma Riot in Bulgaria after Electricity Switched Off
7 May 2002

Research & Advocacy: Continuing Violence against Roma in Greece
7 May 2002

Research & Advocacy: Landmark Decision by Strasbourg Court in Expulsion Case
7 May 2002

Research & Advocacy: Germany's Policies toward Sinti and Roma: Living Apartheid?
7 May 2002

Research & Advocacy: Riot and Fire in Detention Facility in U.K.
7 May 2002

Strategic Litigation: Conka v. Belgium
2 May 2002

News & Events: ERRC Welcomes Landmark Decision by Strasbourg Court in Expulsion Case
6 February 2002

Research & Advocacy: ERRC submission to the UN Special Rapporteur on Adequate Housing (January 2002)
14 January 2002

Research & Advocacy: Displaced Kosovo Roma in the region: an update
7 November 2001

Research & Advocacy: British officials continue policy of stopping Roma at Czech airport; Czech Roma and ERRC sue U.K. government
7 November 2001

Research & Advocacy: Romani family reportedly expelled in the Netherlands
7 November 2001

Research & Advocacy: Fifteen more Hungarian Roma receive asylum in France
15 August 2001

Research & Advocacy: Roma flee Turkish-occupied Northern Cyprus; anti-Gypsyism breaks out in the South
15 August 2001

Research & Advocacy: Slovakia moves to prevent Roma from leaving
15 August 2001

Research & Advocacy: Ethnic discrimination enshrined in U.K. law
15 August 2001

Research & Advocacy: Update on displaced Kosovo Roma around Europe
15 August 2001

News & Events: ERRC Letter to Slovene Minister of Interior
18 July 2001

Research & Advocacy: Roma granted asylum
10 April 2001

Research & Advocacy: Swiss authorities refused asylum to Roma during World War II
10 April 2001

News & Events: EU urged to look within
12 December 2000

Research & Advocacy: Romani asylum seekers protest in Belgium
5 December 2000

Research & Advocacy: Racial discrimination and the protection of minorities: recommended governmentactions
5 December 2000

Research & Advocacy: Protecting Romani refugees around Europe: a Position Paper by the European Roma Rights Center
5 December 2000

News & Events: Statement of the European Roma Rights Center on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the European Convention on Human Rights
2 November 2000

Research & Advocacy: Protecting Romani Refugees around Europe: A Position Paper by the European Roma Rights Center
19 October 2000

Research & Advocacy: Kosovo Romani refugees
3 October 2000

Research & Advocacy: Leading Hungarian politicians deny Romani problems
3 October 2000

News & Events: Letter Concerning Situation of Roma in Austria
28 August 2000

News & Events: ERRC letter to Serbian Prime Minister
27 July 2000

Research & Advocacy: Council of Europe report on asylum
11 July 2000

Research & Advocacy: ERRC appeal not to expel Slovak Romani refugees from Belgium
11 July 2000

Research & Advocacy: Kosovo Romani refugees in Serbia and Macedonia: an update
11 July 2000

Research & Advocacy: Germany returns Romani refugees to Kosovo
11 July 2000

News & Events: ERRC letter to Italian Prime Minister
30 May 2000

News & Events: Planned Expulsion of Roma from Belgium
21 April 2000

Research & Advocacy: UK government may have illegally given Roma asylum; intense anti-Gypsyism in the British press
12 April 2000

News & Events: ERRC Letter to Italian Prime Minister
7 March 2000

News & Events: Open letter of the Romano Centro to the OSCE
10 January 2000

Research & Advocacy: Belgian authorities deport Slovak Roma as European efforts to expel refugee Roma become more aggressive
7 December 1999

News & Events: Letter to Belgian Prime Minister
1 October 1999

News & Events: Letter to Finnish Prime Minister
27 September 1999

News & Events: Letter to Macedonian Interior Minister
23 September 1999

News & Events: Forced migration of Roma and the current asylum crisis
22 September 1999

Research & Advocacy: Move on: Roma refugees from Kosovo in Montenegro
5 September 1999

Research & Advocacy: Romani refugees from Kosovo drown while crossing the Adriatic; Macedonian officials warn that they will send Kosovo refugees back; police expel Kosovo Roma from two Montenegrin towns
5 September 1999

Research & Advocacy: Roma continue to flee from eastern Europe
5 September 1999

Research & Advocacy: News roundup: Snapshots from around Europe
5 September 1999

News & Events: Letter to Interior Minister of Macedonia
31 August 1999

News & Events: Letter to Prime Minister of Italy
4 August 1999

News & Events: European Roma Rights Center Letter to the Prime Minister of Spain
22 July 1999

Research & Advocacy: Aid for Holocaust survivors in Romania 
15 July 1999

Research & Advocacy: Borders, visas and asylum
15 July 1999

News & Events: Open letter to Ms Tarja Halonen, Minister for Foreign Affairs in Finland
6 July 1999

News & Events: Open letter to Mr Kari Häkämies, the Interior Minister of Finland
30 June 1999

News & Events: Balkan Roma Conference on Peace and Security
23 June 1999

Research & Advocacy: Protecting Romani Refugees around Europe: A Position Paper by the European Roma Rights Center
4 June 1999

Research & Advocacy: Roma and forced migration: lessons of recent Canadian cases
3 April 1999

Research & Advocacy: We came from one kind of fear to another: Czech and Slovak Romani refugees speak
3 April 1999

Research & Advocacy: Canada holds unusual hearing on Romani refugees from Hungary
3 April 1999

Research & Advocacy: Roma Rights 1, 1999: Forced Migration
3 April 1999

Research & Advocacy: Disparate impact: removing Roma from the Czech Republic
3 April 1999

Research & Advocacy: Denial of basic rights: the marginalisation of Romani refugees in France
3 April 1999

Research & Advocacy: Roma from Central and Eastern Europe continue to seek asylum in the West
3 April 1999

Research & Advocacy: Forced migration of Roma from eastern Slavonia, Croatia
3 April 1999

Research & Advocacy: Roma and the Treaty of Amsterdam: safe European home?
3 April 1999

News & Events: The ERRC is herewith distributing unchanged an open letter issued by Member of Parliament and ERRC board member Monika Horakova
2 April 1999

Research & Advocacy: Roma deported from Poland
5 January 1999

Research & Advocacy: Romanian Roma seek asylum in Ireland
5 January 1999

Research & Advocacy: News roundup: Snapshots from around Europe
5 January 1999

Research & Advocacy: Repatriation of Roma to Bosnia-Herzegovina
5 January 1999

Research & Advocacy: Letter to the Home Secretary of the United Kingdom
5 January 1999

Research & Advocacy: Roma from Slovakia seek asylum in the United Kingdom
10 September 1998

Research & Advocacy: Berlin deports Bosnians, among them Roma
10 September 1998

Research & Advocacy: News roundup: Snapshots from around Europe
10 September 1998

Research & Advocacy: A Pleasant Fiction: The Human Rights Situation of Roma in Macedonia
3 July 1998

Research & Advocacy: Пријатна фикција: Состојбата со човековите права на Ромите во Македонија
3 July 1998

Research & Advocacy: Asylum news on Czech, Hungarian and Slovak Roma
15 May 1998

Research & Advocacy: Romani policemen in Levan, Albania, stripped of badges
15 May 1998

Research & Advocacy: Chronicle - Activities: November 1998 - March 1999
2 April 1998

Research & Advocacy: Letter to Czech President Václav Havel
2 April 1998

Research & Advocacy: Down by law: police abuse of Roma in Italy
2 April 1998

Research & Advocacy: UK judge protests detention of male Romani refugees
2 April 1998

Research & Advocacy: „Wish you weren’t here” - The response of the British press to Romani asylum seekers
2 April 1998

Research & Advocacy: Field report: Britain and France
2 April 1998

Research & Advocacy: Berlin court rules to deport Republika Srpska Roma
2 April 1998

News & Events: ERRC letter of appeal to Czech President Vaclav Havel
19 January 1998

News & Events: ERRC letter of concern to the Italian Parliament
18 December 1997

News & Events: Statement of the ERRC OSCE Implementation Meeting on Human Dimension Issues
21 November 1997

News & Events: ERRC Statement to the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe Implementation Meeting on Human Dimension Issues
19 November 1997

News & Events: ERRC Letter to the Chief Administrative Judge of Berlin
14 November 1997

Research & Advocacy: On representation
7 November 1997

Research & Advocacy: New law on foreigners in Austria
7 November 1997

Research & Advocacy: Activities: August - October 1997
7 November 1997

Research & Advocacy: News roundup: Snapshot from around Europe
7 November 1997

Research & Advocacy: The long, hot Czech summer
7 November 1997

Research & Advocacy: Roma expelled from Spanish municipality
7 November 1997

Research & Advocacy: Case of shooting by police in France to be reopened
7 November 1997

News & Events: Mass Exodus of Roma to Canada
15 August 1997

News & Events: ERRC Letter to the Chairman of the Monitoring Committee of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe Guido de Marco
6 August 1997

Research & Advocacy: Statement of the ERRC on the occasion of the acceptance of the Czech Rpeublic, Hugary and Poland into NATO
15 July 1997

News & Events: ERRC Letter to the Prime Minister of Greece Simitis Megaro Maximou
23 May 1997

News & Events: Statement of the ERRC Concerning the Forced Return of Bosnian Roma from Germany
21 April 1997

Research & Advocacy: "I Came to the United States"
10 April 1997

Research & Advocacy: The Unnecessary Delay of Justice
10 April 1997

Research & Advocacy: Roma Rights: Spring 1997
10 April 1997

Research & Advocacy: Activities - November 1996-March 1997
10 April 1997

Research & Advocacy: Statement of the ERRC Concerning the Forced Return of Bosnian Roma from Germany
10 April 1997

Research & Advocacy: Kein Ort. Nirgends
10 April 1997

Research & Advocacy: Editorial
10 April 1997

News & Events: Open Letter to the Norwegian Government
13 December 1996

News & Events: Open letter to the German Government
6 November 1996

Research & Advocacy: „It Was a Bear Hunt... There Were Lots of People Who Enjoyed the Atmosphere" - Interviews with Roma Refugees from Bosnia
12 October 1996

Research & Advocacy: Open Letter of the European Roma Rights Center to the German Government
12 October 1996

Research & Advocacy: Divide and Deport. Roma and Sinti in Austria
1 September 1996

ERRC Seeks Communications Intern or Trainee

10 August 2016

The European Roma Rights Centre (ERRC) seeks a Communications Intern or Trainee with experience in research, media, communications or a related field to assist in the promotion of ERRC material on Roma Rights and the activities of the Communications department.

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Adam Weiss on Roma Genocide Remembrance

3 August 2016

ERRC Managing Director Adam Weiss shares his experience of being taught of the holocaust growing up in a Jewish family, and his early perception of Roma as victims of genocide by the Nazis.

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Ethel Brooks on Roma Genocide Remembrance

2 August 2016

Seventy-two years ago today, 2,897 men, women, and children from Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp were forced onto trucks, taken to gas chamber V, and murdered with Zyklon B hydrogen cyanide. Their bodies, too many for the crematorium’s capacity, were burned in pits outside. Upon the Soviet liberation of Auschwitz in 1945, only 4 Roma remained alive.

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